Chapter 8             Command           34

1)   To make appointments is the province of the sovereign;
       to decide on battle, that of the general.

2)   There are three ways in which a ruler can bring
       misfortune upon his army:

3)   When on is ignorant of military affairs, to participate
       in their administration. This causes the officers to
       be perplexed.

4)   When ignorant of command problems, to share in
       the exercise of responsibilities. This engenders
       doubts in the minds of the officers.

5)   If one, ignorant of military matters, is sent to
       participate in the administration of the army, then
       in every movement there will be disagreement and
       mutual frustration and the army will be hamstrung.

6)   One who is confused in purpose cannot respond
       to his enemy. A confused army leads to another's

7)   To put a reign on an able general while asking him
       to suppress and enemy is like tying up a hound and
       expecting him to chase hares.                 

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8)   Now, in war there may be one hundred changes in
       each step. When one sees he can, he advances;
       when he sees that things are difficult, he retires.
       To say that a general must await the orders of the
       sovereign at such times, is like informing a superior
       that you wish to put out a fire. Before the order arrives
       the ashes are cold.

9)   The general's qualities of wisdom, sincerity, humanity,
       courage and strictness enable him to command.

10)   If wise, a commander is able to recognize changing
        circumstances and to act expediently.

11)   If sincere, his men will have no doubt of his discipline
        and leadership.

12)   If humane, he loves mankind, sympathizes with others
        and appreciates their industry and toil.

13)   If courageous, he gains victory by seizing opportunity
        without hesitation.

14)   If strict, his troops are disciplined and well ordered.      

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15)   There is not general who has not heard of these five
         matters. Those who master them, win; those who
         do not are defeated.

16)   The general must be first in the toils and fatigue of
         the army. He waits until his men have water, food
         and shelter before taking these things for himself.

17)   Such a general treats his men as his own beloved
        sons and they will die with him.

18)   Generally, management of many is the same as
        management of few. It is a matter of organization.

19)   To manage a host, one must assign responsibilities
        to the general and his commanders and establish
        the strengths of ranks and files.

20)   A pair and a trio make five, which is a squad; two
        squads make a section; four sections a platoon;
        four platoons a company; four companies a
        battalion; two to five battalions, a brigade; and
        three brigades, a division.

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21)   Heart is that by which the general gains mastery.
        Bravery, cowardice, order and confusion are qualities
        dominated by the heart.

22)   When the general is morally weak, inconsistent and
        not strict in discipline the army is in disorder.

23)   When the administration and orders are inconsistent,
        the men's spirits are low and the officers angry.

24)   If troops are punished before their loyalty is secured,
        they will be disobedient. If troops are loyal, but
        punishments are not enforced, you cannot employ

25)   If the officers first treat the men violently and later are
        fearful of them, the limit of indiscipline has been

26)   When troops are strong and officers weak, the army
        is insubordinate.

27)   When troops flee, are insubordinate, distressed,
        collapse in disorder or are routed, it is the fault
        of the general.