7) By weather, I mean the interaction of natural
forces; the effects of winter's cold and
summer's heat and the conduct of military
operations in accordance with the seasons.
8) By terrain, I mean distances, whether the
ground is traversed with ease or difficulty,
whether it is open or constricted, and the
chances of life or death.
9) By command, I mean the general's qualities
of wisdom, sincerity, humanity, courage
10) All warfare is based on deception.
11) Therefore, when you are capable, feign
incapacity; when active, inactivity.
12) When near, make it appear that you are far
away; when far away, make it appear that
you are near.
13) Offer the enemy a bait to lure him; feign disorder
and strike him.
14) When he concentrates forces prepare against
him; where he is strong, avoid him.
15) Anger his general and confuse him, so that
he will be irritated and recklessly advance
against you without a plan.
16) Pretend inferiority and encourage his arrogance.
17) Keep him under strain and wear him down.
18) Nothing is better than to protract things and
keep him at a distance.
19) Taking advantage of areas where he is
prepared, make repeated sorties. When he
comes to aid the right, attack his left; exhaust
him by causing him to continually run about.
20) When he is united try to divide; introduce
discord and strife within his ranks.
21) Attack where he is unprepared; sally out when
he does not expect you.
22) What is of greatest importance in war is
extraordinary speed; one cannot afford to
23) When confronted by the enemy, respond to
changing circumstances and devise expedient
24) With many calculations one has a chance
to win; with few calculations one cannot win.
Chapter 3 Strategy 9
1) Victory is the main object in war. If this is long
delayed, weapons are blunted and moral
2) Thus, while we have heard of blundering
swiftness in war, we have not yet seen a
clever operation that was prolonged.
3) Those who are unable to understand the
dangers in employing troops are equally
unable to understand the advantages of
4) The wise general sees to it that his troops
feed off the enemy; for one bushel of the
enemy's provisions equals twenty of his.
5) To capture the enemy's troops is better than to
6) Do not put a premium on killing.
7) To subdue the enemy without fighting is the
acme of skill.