Ground          22

24)   Ground to which access is constricted, the way out
    is tortuous and where a small force can strike my
    larger one is called encircled.

25)   In encircled ground, one should block the points
    of access and egress.

26)   In encircled ground devise strategies.

27)   Ground in which the army survives only with
    the courage of desperation is called
    death ground.

28)   In death ground, one should make it evident that
    there is no chance of survival. Soldiers will then
    fight to the death when there is no alternative
    and they are desperate; they will follow
    commands implicitly.

29)   Lay on many deceptive operations. Be seen in
    the west and march out of the east; lure him in
    the north and strike in the south. Drive him crazy
    and bewilder him so that he disperses his
    forces in confusion.     

                                 Ground          23

30)   Take him unaware; by surprise, attack with shock
    troops where he is unprepared.

31)   To cope with a well ordered enemy host about to
    attack; seize something he cherishes and he
    will conform to your desires.

32)   To cultivate a uniform level of valor is the object
    of military administration. It is by the proper use
    of the ground that both shock troops and normal
    forces are used to the best advantage.

33)   The tactical variations appropriate to the nine
    types of ground, the advantages of close or
    extended deployment and the principles of
    human nature are matters that must be
    examined and weighed with the greatest care.  

  Chapter 6              Maneuver          24

1)   Nothing is more difficult than the art of maneuver.
    What is difficult about maneuver is to make the
    devious route the most direct and to turn misfortune
    into advantage.

2)   Thus, march by an indirect route and divert the enemy
    by enticing him with bait. In so doing, you may set out
    after him and arrive before him. One able to do this
    understands the strategy of the direct and the indirect.

3)   He who wishes to achieve an advantage takes  a
    devious and distant route and makes of it the short
    way. He deceives and fools the enemy to make him
    unhurried and then marches on speedily.

4)   Both advantage and danger are inherent in maneuver.

5)   One who set the entire army in motion to obtain an
    advantage will not attain it.

6)   If he abandons the camp to contend for advantage,
    the stores will be lost.

7)   If one moves with everything, the stores will travel
    slowly and he will not gain the advantage.          

                                 Maneuver          25

8)   The protection of metal walls is not as important as
      grain and food.

9)   Therefore, where heavy equipment, food and stores
      are concerned, devise expedients according to the
      enemy situation.

10)   Those who do not know the conditions of mountains
      and forests, hazardous ravines, marshes and swamps,
      cannot conduct the march of an army.

11)   Those who do not use local guides are unable to
      obtain the advantages of the ground.

12)   Generally, the commander must thoroughly acquaint
      himself with the maps so that he knows dangerous
      places for chariots and carts, where the water is too
      deep for wagons; passes in mountains, the principal
      rivers, the locations of highlands and hills; where      
      rushes, forests and reeds are luxuriant; the road
      distances; the size of cities and towns; well known
      cities and abandoned ones and where there are
      flourishing orchards. The size of the opposing army,
      the keenness of his weapons - all must be fully known.
      Then we will have the advantage of the ground and the
      enemy in our sights.