9) To subdue the enemy without fighting is the
finest hope and the greatest skill.
10) Thus, what is of supreme importance in war
is to attack the enemy's strategy.
11) He who knows when to fight and when not to
fight will be victorious.
12) He whose ranks are united in purpose will
13) He who is prepared beforehand for any
contingency through the sue of expediency
and flexibility will be victorious.
14) Invincibility lies in the defense; the possibility
of victory in the offense.
15) In battle use the normal force to engage; use
the extraordinary to win.
16) Thus the momentum of one skilled in war is
overwhelming and the attack precisely regulated.
17) The nature of the ground is the fundamental
factor in aiding the army to set up its victory.
18) Ground may be classified as dispersive,
frontier, key, communicating, focal, serious,
difficult, encircled and death ground.
19) There are some roads not to follow; some
troops not to strike; some cities not to assault
and some ground which should not be
20) The protection of metal walls is not as
important as stores of food.
21) Nothing is more difficult than the art of
22) Those who do not use local guides are
unable to obtain the advantages of the
23) Now war is based on deception. Move when
it is advantageous and create changes in
the situation by dispersal and concentration of
24) The ultimate in disposing one's troops is to
be without ascertainable shape.
25) Go into emptiness, strike voids, bypass what he
defends, hit him where he does not expect you.
26) Therefore, against those skilled in attack, an
enemy does not know where to defend; against
experts in defense, the enemy does not know
where to attack.
27) When he prepares everywhere he will be weak
28) In war numbers alone confer no advantage.
Do not advance relying on sheer military
29) Determine the enemy's plans and you will
know which strategy will be successful and
which will not.
30) Thus, one able to gain victory by modifying his
tactics in accordance with the enemy situation
may be said to be divine.
Chapter 2 Fundamentals 5
1) War is a matter of vital importance to the people;
the province of life or death; the road to survival
or ruin. It is mandatory that it be thoroughly studied.
2) Weapons are tools of ill omen. War is a grave
matter; one is apprehensive lest men and women
embark upon it without due reflection.
3) It is a doctrine of war never to presume the enemy
will not attack but rather to rely on one's readiness
to meet him.
4) Therefore, appraise it in terms of the five
fundamental in order to make one's self
5) The first of these factors is moral influence;
the second weather; the third, terrain; the forth,
command; and the fifth, doctrine.
6) By moral influence, I mean that which causes
the people to be in harmony with their leaders
so that they will accompany them in life and
unto death without fear of mortal peril.